Collection of research concerns about the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on television

Information Analyses

To respond to the initial group of research concerns in connection with prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we utilized episode degree information ( ag e.g., percentages of episodes containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior and containing speak about intercourse associated with nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions by using these nominal data. When it comes to 2nd pair of research questions, we utilized just those suggests that included nonheterosexual sexual content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment periods ( e.g., quantity of periods per hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to check team distinctions. Significant omnibus F tests were followed up with post hoc comparisons making use of Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal mobile size or equal variance, to spot significant distinctions across groups.

Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content

About one out of six programs inside our examples included any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) associated with nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) towards the 2002 2003 period (17.4%) had been significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining Table 1 shows the percentage of demonstrates that contained any exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by form of system, and also by time of day aired. The 11 stations were classified why not look here into one of three categories: commercial broadcast (which included the three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC as well as Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music entertainment (which included BET and MTV), and premium cable movie (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime) for network type. With regards to period of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late afternoon/early night and those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.

Portion of Episodes with Same Sex Sexual habits and talk that is sexual to Nonheterosexuals

Note: Within form of community and period of day aired, percentages into the exact same line that don’t share subscripts differ at p dining Table 1 ). In many instances, there was clearly a high level of correspondence from a genre’s general positions for exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior and speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas. Also, genres’ standings on these two factors had been fairly stable over the two tv periods.

Three genres had been regularly reduced in both kinds of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk associated with nonheterosexuals in a choice of year), news publications (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in year 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that tended to possess the greatest proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and film that is feature. Designed for television movies and programs classified as “other” additionally had fairly high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual nonetheless, both these groups included just a small amount of programs (letter = 7), which makes it hard to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, we do not highlight the findings associated with them although we include these latter two genres in the tables.

System kind evaluations

Across network types, we discovered comparable habits generally in nonheterosexual content that is sexual the 2 tv periods, with regularly reduced percentages of shows on commercial broadcast systems containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior and intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals and also the greatest percentages of programs with both kinds of content on premium cable movie sites. The typical amount of intervals containing sex that is same behavior ended up being 3.7 in year 1 and dropped to 3.0 in year 2. This distinction, but, had not been statistically significant (p = .23). Likewise a t test of this 331 episodes from 12 months 1 and 12 months 2 that included non heterosexual intimate talk suggested that the real difference within the regularity of these content involving the two tv periods (4.2 periods in 12 months 1 and 4.9 periods for 12 months 2) had not been significant (p = .18).

Number of exact Same Sex Sexual Behavior and Talk linked to Nonhetrosexuals each hour of system Time

Note: Within types of community and period of day aired, means into the same line that don’t share subscripts differ at p 1 For ease of presentation, we make use of the term “nonheterosexual” to refer collectively to any or all people whose intimate orientation is certainly not solely heterosexual, including homosexual men, lesbians, and bisexuals of either intercourse.

2 one other behavior that is sexual had been utilized to recapture other kinds of intimate tasks that failed to belong to the categories specified flirting, kissing, intimate touching, sexual activity implied, and sexual activity depicted including low degree intimate functions such as for instance leering to higher level sexual functions such as for instance masturbation and bondage and control.

3 Because our system test had been gathered between 3:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., some talk programs, such as for instance Jerry Springer, that may deal more often with intimate themes are not included simply because they had been broadcast early in the day. The 12 talk programs within our test included those broadcast within the and evening such as Oprah, Rosie O’Donnell, Ricki Lake, The Other Half, and BET Tonight as well as political talk shows (e.g., Face the Nation, McLaughlin Group, The Chris Matthews Show) afternoon.

4 Because our samples include programs from both commercial broadcast and cable companies, we utilized a typical device wide range of 2 moment periods per hour of system time in place of quantity of 2 moment periods per an hour show to evaluate the frequency of intimate behavior and discuss sex linked to nonheterosexuals. This is the reason the proven fact that commercials reduce the amount substantially of program content on broadcast networks to about 22 two moment intervals in a single hour system, whereas 60 minutes cable programs typically have actually about 30 two moment intervals.

Contributor Information

Deborah A. Fisher, Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Douglas L. Hill, Associate Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Joel W. Grube, Director and a Senior Research Scientist during the Prevention analysis Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Enid L. Gruber, Assistant Professor into the Department of Child and Adolescent Studies at Ca State University, Fullerton.